Mutualism, Cost, and the Factors of Production: Terminology of Geo-Mutualist Economics 4/5 (2)

Difficulty     The Factors of Production Without understanding the terminology and the associated definitions as ideology uses, it is impossible to understand the ideology itself. Geo-mutualism is no exception to this rule. Some of the more important terms that geo-mutualists may use relate to matters of economics, particularly what are called the factors of production and their returns. A factor of production is an element of creating goods and services. These include land, labor, and capital. Two of these factors are absolutely necessary to production—land and labor—while it is quite unthinkable today to go without the third, capital. All economic production is done with a combination of these factors, and none other. Labor includes all human time or effort, mental and manual. This includes strenuous forms of labor, and passive forms of labor, which merely take up one’s time. Land includes all natural resources which are untouched by human hands, (more…)
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Mutualism, Emergence, and the Right of Increase 4.67/5 (3)

Difficulty     Mutualism can be understood to be distinct from both capitalism and communism, while maintaining elements of each. Mutualism’s most-celebrated founder, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, was interested in the manner in which theses and antitheses synthesize, and in which antinomies may come to balance one another. Mutuality, or reciprocity, forever approximates this place of synthesis or balance. This places mutualism between capitalism and communism. One of the fundamental values of mutualist political economy is the idea that prices should be dictated by voluntary costs alone. This is known as the cost-principle, which states “cost the limit of price.” Cost is effort, manual or physical. Any price paid to get someone to work— wages— covers cost. Profit, rent, and interest are prices paid above cost, because they are not payments for work, but for having government privileges, such as exclusive licenses or externalized property protection costs. Landlords, bosses, and private lenders could (more…)
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History and the State 4.6/5 (5)

Difficulty     The geo-mutualist panarchist interpretation of history is important for its theory of progress. Rather than, as many anarchists, holding a defeatist and determinist attitude toward history, geo-mutualist panarchists embrace the changes in history, and seek to understand them, in order to influence history further. Geo-mutualist panarchists understand prehistoric, historic, and contemporary hunter-gatherers, and simple horticultural people to largely constitute stateless peoples. Hunter-gatherers and early horticultural people were always on the move, and, as such, could not maintain large surpluses with which to govern a society. In order for authority to establish itself internal to a society, there must be some form of accumulated wealth. At some point, economic rents had started to affect the balance of societies, and some horticulturalists had gained comparative advantages in their land holdings. These societies, which wielded a surplus over the others, and thereby maintained higher-grade technologies, maintained the power to use their (more…)
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The Philosophy and Origins of Geo-Mutualist Panarchism 5/5 (3)

Difficulty     An edited version of this may be used as a chapter in an upcoming book: Geo-Mutualist Panarchism, Theory and Practice ____________________________________________________ Three Wise Men Geo-mutualist panarchism is a complex political and economic philosophy that combines the solutions of three radical libertarian social viewpoints: Georgism, Mutualism, and Panarchism. In order to fully grasp geo-mutualist panarchism, we must look to the originators of each of the philosophies from which it is primarily derived. In the case of the “geo-” prefix, I am speaking of American philosopher and economist, Henry George, from which Georgism, and the shortened geoism, derive their names. Mutualism was a view expressed in the philosophy of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, from France, whose anarchism impacted the early utopian socialist movement. Panarchism was espoused by the Belgian botanist and economist, Paul Emile de Puydt. Georgism focuses on land politics, mutualism primarily on money, and panarchism on social governance. Georgists believe (more…)
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Geo-Mutualist Panarchism: A Synopsis 5/5 (1)

Difficulty     I propose a vision of society called “geo-mutualist panarchism.” This view is a combination of the mutualism of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the classical liberalism of Henry George, and the panarchism of Paul Emile de Puydt, supplemented with libertarian and classical liberal theories of law and jurisprudence, and socialist approaches toward worker self-management and social involvement in decision-making. What would such a society look like? In line with the panarchy of Paul Emile de Puydt, everyone would be able to choose to participate in whatever society it may be, governmental or anarchistic, without moving location, with the only limit to their success being economic viability. Democrats can subscribe to a democratic system of social management, Republicans to theirs, and the same of more radical communists or nationalists, and even of my beloved anarchists. I support a treatise between these groups, with two balancing rules: the non-aggression principle and the principle (more…)
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Epilogue 5/5 (1)

Difficulty     This Text Can Be Found in the Book, The Evolution of Consent: Collected Essays (Vol. I)   If you have read this book traditionally, going from cover to cover, you should now be at least somewhat versed in both dualistic pantheism and geo-mutualist panarchism. It is my view that these two perspectives, which are prominent in my work, naturally must feed one another to have any cultural momentum, but that in doing so they have the potential to flourish, creating a positive feedback loop. Both dualistic pantheism and geo-mutualist panarchism place great emphasis on the will of the individual, and the necessity of concerted action in liberation. One provides the metaphysical foundation upon which the physical reality of the other may be built. I hope in some of the essays, such as “A Mystical Look at Evolution,” to have demonstrated the necessity of including a non-empirical and subjectivist (more…)
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Revolutionary Incrementalism and Rebellions of Scale 5/5 (1)

Difficulty     This Text Can Be Found in the Book, The Evolution of Consent: Collected Essays (Vol. I) Introduction There are two natural tendencies within an economy; that toward competition and that which approaches monopoly. While most monopolies are due to state interference in the market, natural monopolies may persist in a free market, though they also have potential to be corrected without state regulation. Thus, economies of scale and scope should dictate not only the preferred economic model for such markets, but also the means by which this model may be accomplished; by way of bilateralizing the monopoly, or out-competing it. Supply and Demand Economies are systems of resource allocation, usually maintained between relations of producers and consumers. In a barter economy there is no distinction between producers and consumers, because goods and services are being directly exchanged, but in a market economy the holder of currency (title to (more…)
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Cost, Aggression, and Access to the Land 4/5 (3)

Difficulty     This Text Can Be Found in the Book, The Evolution of Consent: Collected Essays (Vol. I) Introduction In this essay, I intend on demonstrating the complementarity between the cost-principle (as used by mutualists), rent-sharing (as displayed by the Georgists), and the principle of non-aggression (as used by the voluntaryists). I will also demonstrate why geo-mutualism is a better way to distribute land than by balancing its use either by individualizing or collectivizing it, as done in the extremes of capitalism and communism. I hope this essay to demonstrate the efficiency, both ethical and practical, of geo-mutualism, and its relatability to the non-aggression and cost-principles.  The Cost-principle In “The Mutualist Cost-principle,” I outline the dynamic of mutualist economics, which follows the maxim, “cost-the-limit-of-price.” According to this view, any price above or below the cost of manufacture is discouraged, including all forms of taxes, interest, profit, and rent. Wages, salaries, (more…)
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On Mutualism & Interest on Capital 4.5/5 (6)

Difficulty     This Text Can Be Found in the Book, The Evolution of Consent: Collected Essays (Vol. I) Much of the conflict between mutualism and other schools of economics seems to be based on terminology. Mutualists lack the terminology to properly separate returns from land, capital, and labor, while Georgists, and others, divide them classically into rent, interest, and wages. Georgists, and others, lack the language necessary to describe returns on these factors due purely to privilege, while mutualists describe these usurious returns as rent, interest, and profit. Naturally, this brings us to conflict. One reason the mutualists lack terminology to divide the fair and unfair returns on the three factors of production may be because of their belief that competitive markets (or, as I argue, bilateral monopolies) push prices to costs. Because they oppose patent-restrictions, land monopoly, and other privileges, they believe that, fairly quickly, in a free market, (more…)
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Interest & Premium: A Geo-Mutualist Synthesis 5/5 (3)

Difficulty     This Text Can Be Found in the Book, The Evolution of Consent: Collected Essays (Vol. I)   Introduction Two beautifully libertarian and populist philosophies, Georgism and mutualism, should not find themselves at such odds with one another, and, yet, they do. In this treatise I will analyze the conflict between these two schools of thought, Georgism and mutualism, and show that these two groups, at the root of their philosophies, actually share a lot more in common, than different, from one another, and would gain largely from cooperating and adapting one another’s ideas. I will also be contributing a new model of returns, which will allow us (Georgists and mutualists) to better communicate our meanings with one another as it relates to issues regarding the returns and fairness of distribution. I will conclude with discussion regarding the social effects of geo-mutualism and its expression as a panarchy. The (more…)
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